La magrezza tra normalità e patologia

0
6613

 

Conclusioni

La magrezza è una condizione che interessa una quantità non trascurabile della popolazione in età infantile e adolescenziale. La maggior parte dei soggetti magri presentano una magrezza idiopatica o costituzionale, che rimane una diagnosi di esclusione rispetto a diverse forme patologiche. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per confermare l’aumentato rischio di morbilità e mortalità in questi soggetti e per definire le correlazioni esistenti tra magrezza, sviluppo puberale e raggiungimento della statura finale.

 

Bibliografia

1 Spear BA et al. Recommendations for treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity. Pediatrics 2007; 120: S 254 – S 288.

2 WHO. Physical Status. The use and interpretation of anthropometry. Geneva 1995.

3 Pelletier D. The relationship between child anthropometry and mortality in developing countries: implications for policy, programs and future research. J. Nutr 1994; 124: 2047S-2081S.

4 Myatt M et al. A review of methods to detect cases of severely malnourished children in the community for their admission into community-based therapeutic care programs. Food Nutr Bull 2006; 27 (3): S7-S23.

5 Must A. et al. Reference data for obesity: 85th and 95th percentiles of body mass index (wt/ ht2) and triceps skinfold thickness. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53: 839-846.

6 Cole T et al. Body Mass Index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: an international survey. BMJ 2007; 335 (7612): 194-201.

7 Wang Y et al. Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China and Russia. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75: 971-977.

8 Alemayehu T et al. Adolescents’ undernutrition and its determinants among in-school communities of Ambo town, West Oromia, Ethiopia. East Afr J Public Health 2010; 7(3): 263-267.

9 Oulamara H et al. Changes in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in Algerian children between 2001 and 2006. Int J Pediatr Obes 2009; 4(4): 411-413.

10 Ferrar K et al. Thin adolescents. Who are they? What they do? Socio-demographic and use-of-time characteristics. Preventive Medicine 2010; 51: 253-258.

11 Lazzeri G et al. Underweight and overweight among children and adolescents in Tuscany (Italy). Prevalence and short-term trends. J. Prev Med Hyg 2008; 49(1): 13- 21.

12 Rosen D, and the Committee on Adolescence. Identification and management of eating disorders in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2010; 126: 1240.

13 Bulik CM et al. The genetic epidemiology of thinness. Ob Rev 2001; 2: 107-115.

14 Whitaker KL et al. The intergenerational transmission of thinness. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2011; 165(10): 900- 905.

15 Soltoft F et al. The association of body mass index and health-related quality of life in the general population: data from the 2003 Health Survey of England. Qual life Res 2009; 18: 1293-1299.

16 Artero G et al. Health related fitness in adolescents: underweight and not only overweight as an influencing factor. The AVENA study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010 (20); 418-427.

17 Metter EJ et al. Skeletal muscle strenght as a predictor of all-cause mortality in healthy men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002: 57 (10); B359 –B 365.

18 Andreotti F et al. Body fat and cardiovascular risk: understanding the obesity paradox. Eur Heart J 2009; 30: 752-754.

19 Berrigton de Gonzales E et al. BMI and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. NEJM 2010; 363: 2211-2219.

20 Kaplowitz PB. Link between body fat and the timing of puberty. Pediatrics 2008; 121: S208-S217.

21 Shalitin S, Phillip M. Role of obesity and leptin in the pubertal process and pubertal growth – a review. Int J ob 2003; 27: 869-874.

22 Cheung CC et al. A reassesment of leptin’s role in triggering the onset of puberty in the rat and mouse. Neuroendocrinology 2001; 74(1): 12-21.

23 Maor G et al. Leptin acts as a growth factor on the chondrocytes of skeletal growth centres. J Bone Min Res 2002; 17: 1034-1043.

24 El-Eshmawy MM et al. Association of ghrelin and leptin with reproductive hormones in constitutional delay of growth and puberty. Repr Bio and End 2010; 8: 153- 158.

25 Tena-Sempere M. Ghrelin: novel regulator of gonadal function. J Endocrinol Invest 2005; 28: 26-29.

26 Wehkalampi K et al. Adult height in girls with delayed pubertal growth. Horm Res Paediatr 2011; 76: 130-135. 27 Wehkalampi K et al. Progressive reduction of relative height in childhood predicts adult stature below target height in boys with constitutional delay of growth and puberty. Horm Res 2007; 68: 99-104.

28 Wudy SA et al. Children with idiopathic short stature are poor eaters and have decreased body mass index. Pediatrics 2005; 116: e52 – e57.